What an ecosystem – Of course the words Ecosystem are familiar to our ears. Moreover, for those students, of course, they have often heard and even understood what is meant by the notion of ecosystem. Almost every educational institution, of course, has discussed the meaning of ecosystem. Now for this time we will discuss more about ecosystems.
Understanding of ecosystem
What is meant by an ecosystem is an ecological system formed by the existence of a reciprocal and inseparable relationship with living things and the environment. An order of unity between elements of the environment that can influence each other.
And other terms can be interpreted as a combination of several biosystem units and environmental systems that involve interaction and reciprocal relationships between organisms and the physical environment.
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To be clear, the entire ecosystem component is the sun which is the main source. Within the ecosystem the organisms in the community develop along with the physical environment of a system.
What is an ecosystem component?
For a broader understanding, we must be able to understand the components in the ecosystem. We need to know 2 things that are the source of ecosystem formation, namely biotic components and also abiotic components.
1. Biotic Components
That is what is usually used to refer to something living or an organism. Or it can also be interpreted as the biotic components that make up an ecosystem apart from the inanimate components of antibiotics. And divided into two kinds, namely consumers or commonly called heterotrophs and decomposers or commonly called decomposers.
Heterotrophs are components consisting of organisms that utilize organic materials provided by organisms as food. The heterotrophs include humans, animals, fungi and microbes.
And next is the decomposer or decomposer which has a role to be able to decompose organic materials derived from organisms that have died. Decomposers are usually called macro consumers (sapotrophs) because the food they eat is larger.
Included in the decomposers are bacteria and fungi. Examples of decomposer animals that can eat the remains of organic matter such as wood lice.
There are three types of decomposition and they are as follows:
Aerobic is oxygen which is an electron acceptor or oxidant.
Anaerobic i.e. oxygen is not involved or organic material is an electron acceptor or oxidant.
Fermentation is anaerobic but organic matter is oxidized as an electron acceptor. Which are in one place and can interact to form an orderly ecosystem.
2. Abiotic Components
The non-living components are physical and chemical components, namely the medium or substrate in which life takes place and the environment in which life occurs. And most of the abiotic components vary in space and time. The components can be in the form of organic matter, organic compounds and also factors that can affect the distribution of organisms, including the following:
- Soils and rocks have a pH, physical structure and mineral composition that limits the spread of organisms based on the content of their food sources in the soil.
- Climate is the weather conditions over a long period of time in an area. What is meant by macro climate is the global, regional, and local climate, while the micro climate includes the climate in an area inhabited by a particular community.
- Temperature that can affect biological processes, mammals and birds need energy to be able to regulate their body temperature.
- Water that can affect the distribution of organisms, organisms in the desert that adapt to the availability of water in the desert.
- Salt which is able to affect the balance of water in organisms through osmosis.
- The quality of sunlight from sunlight can affect the process of photosynthesis. High light intensity can increase the temperature.
Ecosystems are the result of interactions that can occur between living things and non-living components of the earth. Different ecosystems that can be influenced by climate and also where the ecosystem is located. The earth is surrounded by land and water, so there are 2 ecosystems on earth, namely land ecosystems and water ecosystems.
1. Land Ecosystem
Terrestrial ecosystems can also be called biomes, which are areas that have the same characteristics, climate, and gathering place for various kinds of living things, as well as the geographical level.
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Land ecosystems can be divided into 8, namely tropical rainforest biomes, deciduous forest biomes, prairie biomes, savanna biomes, tundra biomes, taiga biomes, karst biomes and the following are some types of terrestrial ecosystems:
- The tropical rainforest biome is located in a tropical climate area that has high rainfall. And has a tropical temperature of about 25 degrees.
- The deciduous forest biome is located in an area that has 4 seasons as well as subtropical and is different from the rain forest which will always rain. In the rain forest the intensity of rain is more evenly distributed and the deciduous forest has the ability to adapt well to changing seasons.
- Grassland biomes can usually be found in areas with tropical and subtropical climates that tend to have low rainfall. With low rainfall it makes trees live only in small numbers. The average plant life is short and can be very fertile and also infertile.
- The savanna biome is located in the tropics and has high rainfall when compared to grasslands.
- The taiga biome is located in an area with a cold climate and the types of trees found are coniferous trees.
- The tundra biome is located in the coldest areas on earth such as Antarctica and also the Arctic, which is usually during winter when there is no incoming sunlight.
- The desert biome is the hottest area and has little or no rainfall.
Kasrt biomes in limestone areas.
2. Water Ecosystem
Which is a large ecosystem on earth that consists mostly of water. This ecosystem can also be affected by incoming sunlight. And water ecosystems can be divided into two, namely fresh water and sea water.
- Freshwater ecosystems that have little salt content and can also be distinguished based on the state of the water.
- Marine ecosystems that have high levels and these ecosystems have water movements that can be affected by wind direction.
That’s a little information about what an ecosystem is. Thank you.